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Lithium

  • The government banned the use of Lithium citrate in soft drinks in 1948 and it was removed from 7-Up. Lithium citrate has been used for many decades for psychiatric treatment of manic states and bipolar disorder and as a supposed cure for hangovers at the time.
  • It contained the mood stabilizer lithium citrate, and was one of a number of patent medicine products popular in the late-19th and early-20th centuries.
  • Because of prevalent theories linking excess uric acid to a range of disorders, including depressive and manic disorders, Carl Lange in Denmark and William Alexander Hammond in New York City used lithium to treat mania from the 1870s onwards.
  • The rest of the world was slow to adopt this treatment, largely because of deaths which resulted from even relatively minor overdosing, including those reported from use of lithium chloride as a substitute for table salt.

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An Intuition for Lisp Syntax

  • There lies our problem: we can’t use eval, but we need some way to receive arbitrary instructions.
  • Let’s make it more interesting.
  • In JavaScript, you define variables by writing const x = foo.
  • We could easily write some special c instruction that works just like def.
  • If we think about it, it’s as though in Javascript we are guests, and we need to follow the language designer’s rules.
  • Now, if we agree that the ability to manipulate source code is important to us, what kind of languages are most conducive for supporting it?
  • It’s like the solution to an optimization problem: if you care about manipulating code, you gravitate towards discovering Lisp.
  • You’d truly be on the same footing as the language designer, and the abstractions you could write at that level, can add up to save you years of work.

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Goldman’s Infrastructure Arm Makes $500 Million Data Center Bet

  • The New York-based firm’s infrastructure arm, part of its merchant bank, agreed to invest an initial $500 million in Global Compute Infrastructure LP, a platform helmed by Scott Peterson, the former chief investment officer at Digital Realty Trust Inc. Including debt, Global Compute will have a roughly $1.5 billion war chest to do deals in North America, Europe, Latin America and Asia Pacific.
  • Peterson, Global Compute’s chief executive officer, oversaw some $17 billion in deal volume across both organic development and mergers and acquisitions during his tenure at Digital Realty.
  • Peterson and Global Compute Chief Operating Officer Chris Kenney were longtime executives at real estate investment trust Digital Realty.
  • Global Compute separately agreed to acquire ATM SA, a Polish data center and communications infrastructure business, from a group led by MCI and Mezzanine Management.

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'First Ladies' recap: Eleanor Roosevelt, the FLOTUS rebel

  • Editor's Note: Kate Andersen Brower is author of "The Residence," "First Women," "Team Of Five" and "First In Line," and consultant on the CNN Original Series "First Ladies." Kate Bennett is a White House correspondent for CNN.
  • It's incredible that FDR was president for 12 years, 1933 to 1945 -- which makes Eleanor the longest-serving first lady in American history.
  • Bennett: "You have a megaphone to speak to the world, if you learn how to use it." That's such a good way to describe the potential of a first lady.
  • Brower: We've been hearing from Allida Black in this episode; she's a preeminent Eleanor Roosevelt biographer.
  • Brower: Eleanor found those love letters between FDR and Lucy Mercer years before he became president.
  • Brower: Like you said, Eleanor was ahead of her time as first lady in almost every way.

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Thai Protesters Plan to Pressure Germany on King’s Legal Status

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Inflated land purchase 'reflects poorly' on bureaucrats: Treasury boss

  • The Australian Federal Police is investigating the purchase of the Leppington Triangle land for the western Sydney airport development over concerns stemming from a bruising audit.
  • Dr Kennedy, who was the head of the Infrastructure Department at the time of the purchase, said he had been "surprised and concerned" when it was revealed that officials withheld key information from senior decision-makers about the 12.3 hectares of land.
  • The Australian National Audit Office report said the department wrote off 90 per cent of the $29.8 million price tag less than a year after the acquisition and did not exercise appropriate due diligence in the purchase.
  • Former opposition leader Bill Shorten said the Morrison government was cutting the Auditor-General's funding at the same time as major controversies were coming to light, including the purchase of luxury watches by Australia Post boss Christine Holgate.

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Afterpay's regulation risk is rising: UBS

  • With the RBA's payments regulation review considering whether buy now, pay later operators should be treated in the same way as credit card schemes, which are not able to stop merchants passing fees on to customers, UBS said two-thirds of shoppers would not use Afterpay if they had to pay a small fee of 4 per cent for each transaction.
  • Even as the government dumped Australian Securities and Investments Commission-enforced responsible lending laws, which consumer groups have for many years argued should apply to Afterpay, UBS also said buy now, pay later remains "at significant risk of being regulated as a credit provider".
  • The risk is rising that Afterpay will be hit with regulation from the Reserve Bank next year, UBS has warned, as it released a survey that found 45 per cent of shoppers would not use it once they learnt of the hidden costs.

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Epic's latest argument in its fight against Apple keeps antitrust issues front and center

  • Epic Games, the game engine developer and creator of the wildly popular Fortnite game, is keeping the focus squarely on antitrust issues in its lawsuit against Apple as pressures mount to rein in anti-competitive practices of the world’s largest tech companies.
  • Earlier this month the Trump Justice Department filed its antitrust case against Google even as Congress laid out its roadmap for how to limit the monopoly power of a quartet of trillion-dollar companies: Facebook, Amazon, Apple and Alphabet (the parent company behind Google).
  • From Epic’s perspective, it took the steps it did in creating an in-game marketplace that its players could access directly, to prove that the App Store is not a necessary part of the iOS ecosystem; “they are just the tools Apple uses to maintain its monopoly,” the company’s lawyers wrote.

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5 types of plots that will help you with time series analysis

  • Having prepared the data, we will take a look at different types of plots used for time series analysis.
  • For our case, when looking at the time plot we can see that there is monthly seasonality (12 periods, but that can be determined automatically given there is a timestamp index in the DataFrame) and the changes over time are not constant (increasing), so we will go with the multiplicative model.
  • In contrast, the partial autocorrelation function (PACF) looks at the correlation between the residuals (the remainder after removing the effects explained by the previous lags) and the following lag value.
  • Normally, the autocorrelations plots are often used for determining the stationarity of the time series or choosing the hyperparameters of the ARIMA class models, but these are topics for another article.

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Efficient Data Summarizing and Analysis Using Pandas’ Groupby Function

  • The way we can use groupby on multiple variables, using multiple aggregate functions is also possible.
  • This next example will group by ‘race/ethnicity and will aggregate using ‘max’ and ‘min’ functions.
  • Let’s make a DataFrame that contains the maximum and minimum score in math, reading, and writing for each group segregated by gender.
  • Group by ‘race/ethnicity’ and use max and mean on math score and median and min on reading score.
  • Apply aggregate functions on some nominal columns such as ‘lunch’ and ‘parental level of education’.
  • Map the mean reading score of each group and generate a new column.
  • There is a new column named ‘New’ at the end, that is containing the mean reading score of the corresponding group.
  • You learned to use aggregate functions, data transformation, filter, map, and visualization using groupby.

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