Endurance Running Hypothesis
- Limb length and mass: Homo has longer legs relative to body mass, which helps to decrease the energetic costs of running, as time in contact with the ground increases. There is also a decrease in mass of distal parts of limbs of humans, which is known to decrease metabolic costs in endurance running, but has little effect on walking. Additionally, the mass of the upper body limbs in Homo has decreased considerably, relative to total body mass, which is important to reduce the effort of stabilizing the arms in running.
- In addition to advances in skeletal structure and stabilization, adaptations that led to increased efficiency in dissipation of heat were instrumental in the evolution of endurance running in Homo. The duration for which an animal can run is determined by its capacity to release more heat than is produced to avoid lethal temperatures.
Mexico's military paraded through the streets for independence day, and for the first time, women pilots flew over them
- Late Sunday and throughout Monday, Mexicans celebrated their country's independence day.
- Celebrations took place all over the country, including in Mexico City's main plaza, Zocalo Square, where thousands of onlookers watched members of the Mexican military parade past on foot, in vehicles, and in the air.
- Below, you can see how Mexico's armed forces invoked past and present to celebrate the 209th anniversary of Mexico's freedom from Spain.
- The words of the priest Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla became a battle cry for Mexican forces in the war.
- But what exactly he said in what is now Guanajuato state in 1810 is not known.
- Cinco de Mayo, celebrated on May 5, is sometimes confused for Mexico's independence day.
- Cinco de Mayo instead marks the Mexican army's defeat of a larger French force at the Battle of Puebla in 1862, during the Franco-Mexican War.
The Air Force invented a tool to make it easier to change the 28 tires on its largest plane
- Too many, according to J.D. Bales, Air Force Research Laboratory and Junior Force Warfighter Operations team member of the Materials and Manufacturing Directorate.
- The 60th Aircraft Maintenance Squadron, part of the Air Mobility Wing at Travis Air Force Base, California, who maintain the US Air Force's largest aircraft, the C-5M Super Galaxy, contacted the JFWORX team seeking assistance to increase the safety and decrease the manpower requirements of the current tire-changing process.
- It is a complicated multistep procedure that requires up to five people working together for an extended period of time with a number of safety risks due to the size and weight of the tires and tools.
- Department of Defense organizations interested in working with the JFWORX team can contact the Materials and Manufacturing Directorate's Corporate Communications team at [email protected] to learn more.
A US Navy destroyer sailed into Beirut for the first time in 36 years on Saturday, and it may be a message to Iran
- Saudi Arabia claimed without evidence on Monday that the attacks against its oil facilities were not launched from Yemen and were carried out by Iranian weapons, according to the New York Times.
- Over the last several weeks, Israel has been the target of anti-tank missile strikes from Iranian-backed Hezbollah militants, and rocket and drone attacks from Gaza.
- Israel also claims the Iranian-backed militants in Lebanon are seeking to manufacture precision guided missiles with an accuracy of up to 10 meters.
- The IDF said the attack was carried out by the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps Quds Force unit with collaboration from Hezbollah militants, according to a news release.
- As Iran flexes its proxies across the region, Israel appears poised to be dragged into a broader regional war with Hezbollah and Iranian proxies in Lebanon and Syria and Hamas militants in Gaza.
The Air Force Will Let Hackers Try to Hijack an Orbiting Satellite
- At the Defcon hacking conference next year, the Air Force will bring a satellite for fun and glory.
- When the Air Force showed up at the Defcon hacker conference in Las Vegas last month, it didn’t come empty-handed.
- Roper knows this from experience: The Hack the Air Force initiative, a bug bounty that sprung from a partnership between HackerOne and the Pentagon’s Defense Digital Service, paid out $130,000 to hackers who collectively found over 120 vulnerabilities last December.
- It was DDS that connected the Air Force to the organizers of Defcon’s Aviation Village, a corner of the hacking conference dedicated to all things aerial that debuted this year.
- Think you know how to hack a satellite or its ground station?
- That group will once again be culled; the Air Force will fly the winners out to Defcon for a live hacking competition.
Check out the Air Force's new T-7A Red Hawk, named for the legendary Tuskegee Airmen
- Acting Secretary of the Air Force Matthew Donovan announced on Monday that the US Air Force would introduce a new training aircraft named for the Tuskegee Airmen, the first African-American squadron in the US Army Air Corps.
- Donovan was joined onstage by Col. Charles McGee, one of the original Tuskegee Airmen.
- McGee served in World War II, Korea, and Vietnam, and flew over 400 combat missions, according to a release from the Air Force.
- The first squadron, the 99th Fighter Squadron, were America's first African-American military pilots.
- According to Tuskegee University, 1,000 African-American pilots were trained at Tuskegee from 1941 to 1946.
- Although they were finally allowed to train to be pilots, the Tuskegee Airmen still lived in segregated quarters while training.
- The Air Force ordered 351 of the new aircraft, as well as 46 simulators and additional ground equipment, to the tune of $9.2 billion.
Air Force Special Operations Command's new 'ultimate battle plane' is 'performing magnificently' over Afghanistan
- NATIONAL HARBOR, Maryland — The new AC-130J Ghostrider gunship, described by Air Force Special Operations Command as "the ultimate battle plane," has been "performing magnificently" in its initial combat missions in Afghanistan, AFSOC commander Lt. Gen.
- The Ghostrider, with internal and external weapons systems including a 105 mm artillery piece, is replacing the AC-130U version, which has provided close-air support for AFSOC "for many, many years," Slife said at the Air, Space and Cyber Conference in National Harbor, Maryland.
- As the new AFSOC commander, Slife said one of his main priorities is integrating women into the command, pointing to the example of 1st Lt. Chelsey Hibsch, a security forces officer assigned to the 821st Contingency Response Squadron at Travis Air Force Base, California.
Police cars, ambulances, and fire trucks around the world are taking aerial photos of their equipment in a viral 'Tetris challenge'
- Often done with different foods or items of clothing, emergency response workers around the world are getting in on the knolling trend by artfully arranging the contents of emergency service vehicles.
- The photos have sparked a viral "Tetris challenge," named for the classic video game where spatial awareness is key.
- Dutch police and armed forces vehicles laid out their equipment in photos reminiscent of a miniature toy set.
- Dutch ambulances followed.
- The New Zealand Police took a knolling photo per a Twitter user's request.
- Singapore's Civil Defence Force said they "couldn't resist" joining the Tetris challenge in an Instagram post.
- Geneva's Fire and Rescue Service in Switzerland laid out the contents of one of their fire trucks.
- Hungary's police completed the Tetris challenge with their reflective jackets, traffic cones, weapons, handcuffs, and other tools.
Trump's raid on military construction funds for his border wall will screw over critical Air Force projects
- An Air Force assessment indicates that the Trump administration's decision to reroute funding from dozens of the service's planned military construction projects "poses various national security risks for the US armed forces," NBC News reports.
- The internal report, obtained by NBC News on Friday, details how the Trump administration's September move to reprogram $3.6 billion in Defense Department funding for military construction projects to erect a wall on the US-Mexico border impacts 51 specific Air Force projects out of 127 identified by the Pentagon.
- The Air Force is the second service branch to raise issues internally with President Donald Trump's February national emergency declaration, which allowed the commander-in-chief to bypass Congress and obtain funds for the border wall that was the central pillar of his presidential campaign.
Here are some of the upgrades coming to the Air Force's oldest bomber
- As part of the contract, Raytheon will work with prime contractor Boeing to replace the radar and radome, as well as putting in new displays, said Michael Riggs, Boeing's B-52 radar modernization program manager.
- So far, 60 of the 76 aircraft have received modifications, said Alan Williams, deputy B-52 program element monitor at Air Force Global Strike Command.
- The Air Force is also adding Link 16 to the B-52, which is one of the last of the service's aircraft to get that NATO-standard communications link, said Scot Oathout, Boeing's bombers program director.
- The service is in the process of a "form, fit, function replacement" for its current ALQ-172 electronic countermeasures system, or ECM, which will help solve problems with obsolescence and increase reliability without providing a capability upgrade, said Williams.