Sage: Semi-automatic ground environment air defense system
- Not only did the Soviet Union have the bomb, it had also developed long-range aircraft able to reach the United States via an Arctic route.
- The Ground Control of Intercept (GCI) radar network developed during World War II had been designed to defend against an attack with conventional weapons, and it had only a limited ability to detect incoming hostile aircraft.
- The committee determined that, to attack a city in the United States, a Soviet bomber would need to fly at low altitude for only about 10 percent of its journey.
- The Committee determined that the weakest link in the nation's air defenses was the radars that were supposed to detect low-flying aircraft.
- At the Air Force's Cambridge Research Laboratory, John Harrington had developed an early form of modem known as the digital radar relay, which was capable of converting analog radar signals into digital code that could be transmitted over telephone lines.
How big was the explosion that devastated Beirut? - Business Insider
- The explosion in Beirut was so powerful that some observers feared the city had experienced a nuclear detonation of some sort, a fear exacerbated by the mushroom cloud towering over the blast site after the explosion.
- With an explosive yield of a few hundred tons, the Beirut blast would have been dozens of times less powerful than the atomic bomb that devastated Hiroshima, which had an estimated yield of about 15 kilotons.
- For example, a massive 2015 explosion in Tianjin, China that killed more than 160 people, including 99 firefighters, and damaged over 300 buildings was partially caused by 800 tons of ammonium nitrate, and the 1947 Texas City explosion that killed over 500 people involved the detonation of 2,300 tons of the substance.
Why did the atomic spy do it?
- The brilliant German theoretical physicist handed the Soviet Union secrets that allowed it to accelerate its cold-war work on a nuclear weapon.
- In 1937, he moved to the University of Edinburgh to work for a fellow refugee — the quantum-mechanics pioneer and later Nobel prizewinner Max Born (the subject of Thorndike Greenspan’s 2005 biography The End of A Certain World).
- Released in late 1940, Fuchs returned to the United Kingdom, where he worked in Birmingham with Rudolf Peierls, another German-born physicist.
- Peierls was involved in a secret project to build an atomic bomb, and Fuchs started providing technical information on this to the Soviets, handing over documents in secret meetings.
- With regard to Fuchs’s moral legacy, it is reasonable to note that Wernher von Braun, the German rocket scientist who helped the United States in the space race, is regarded by many as a hero despite his earlier work for the Nazis.
Westinghouse Files for Bankruptcy, in Blow to Nuclear Power
- The filing comes as the company’s corporate parent, Toshiba of Japan, scrambles to stanch huge losses stemming from Westinghouse’s troubled nuclear construction projects in the American South.
- Even before the filing, Toshiba had essentially retired Westinghouse from the business of building nuclear power plants.
- The power companies — Scana Energy in South Carolina and a consortium in Georgia led by Georgia Power, a unit of Southern Company — would face the possibility of new contract terms, long lawsuits and absorbing losses that Toshiba and Westinghouse could not cover, analysts say.
- Dennis Pidherny, a managing director at Fitch Ratings who is sector head of the United States public power group, said that it was possible that the company’s bankruptcy filing could terminate the contracts and that it could be difficult for the utilities to find another builder to take them over.
Why do we still have The Bomb?
- They are the co-authors of the new book "The Button: The New Nuclear Arms Race and Presidential Power from Truman to Trump." The opinions expressed in this commentary are those of the authors; view more opinion on CNN.
- President Harry Truman could not have fully understood the power of the atomic bomb when -- at his direction -- the United States dropped two on Hiroshima and Nagasaki 75 years ago.
- Even though we have much better things to spend the money on, such as responding to the coronavirus and rebuilding the economy, advocates for The Bomb have convinced Congress to fund nuclear programs to replace the submarines, bombers and land-based missiles as if the Cold War never ended.
- We explore this question in our new book, "The Button: The New Nuclear Arms Race and Presidential Power from Truman to Trump." Here is what we found.
North Korea's work on nuclear weapons includes 'miniaturized' devices, UN report says
- United Nations (CNN) - North Korea is continuing work on its nuclear program and several countries believe Pyongyang has made gains in producing ballistic missiles with small nuclear devices attached, according to a confidential United Nations (UN) report, a UN diplomat told CNN.
- The report, which concludes that North Korea remains in violation of UN sanctions, has been circulated to the 15-nation Security Council.
- One country also assessed that North Korea could rebuild and reinstall within three months the infrastructure needed to support a nuclear test, the report said.
- There hasn't been a known nuclear test inside North Korea since September 2017.
- A UN report last year concluded North Korea generated around $2 billion using cyberattacks to plunder banks and cryptocurrency exchanges.
- The summary of that report indicated North Korea is probing Security Council countries in cyberattacks.
The mine that built the atomic bomb
- The Shinkolobwe mine – named after a kind of boiled apple that would leave a burn if squeezed – was the source for nearly all of the uranium used in the Manhattan Project, culminating with the construction of the atomic bombs dropped on Japan in 1945.
- The story of Shinkolobwe began when a rich seam of uranium was discovered there in 1915, while the Congo was under colonial rule by Belgium.
- In a deal with Union Minière – negotiated by the British, who owned a 30% interest in the company – the US secured 1,200 tonnes of Congolese uranium, which was stockpiled on Staten Island, US, and an additional 3,000 tonnes that was stored above ground at the mine in Shinkolobwe.
- “The idealism, hope, and vision of the Congolese for a Congo free of occupation by an external power was devastated by the military and political interests of the Western powers,” says Williams.