Women in bloodstained death camp uniforms waved Israeli flags and men dressed as German officers posed with guns at Monday's regional carnival in the small town of Campo de Criptana in the Castile-La Mancha region, around 90 miles southeast of Madrid.
Human Rights Watch warned last June that "evidence of rising anti-Semitism in Europe has become impossible to ignore," after a Jewish cemetery in France was vandalized, Germany faced a spike in attacks on Jewish people and the United Kingdom launched a formal investigation into anti-Semitism in the Labour Party.
In December, images of the Star of David and messages apparently relating to the September 11 attacks were painted on buildings in London, on the same day that five people were stabbed at a Hanukkah celebration in New York.
The message came three days after author and columnist Lori Alexander questioned "how men could be attracted to women dressed as men like female police officers and females in the military," though the Canadian military's tweet did not directly reference Alexander's comments.
Alexander's original tweet spread across social media and military groups, receiving more than 5,000 comments as of Monday afternoon.
Many current and former service members and law-enforcement officers criticized her statement with their own experience in their respective organizations.
A mother of four who describes herself as a "Born Again Christian," Alexander has claimed she received support for the views expressed on her blog.
Roughly 15% of troops in the Canadian armed forces are women, the service found in a 2018 study.
The number is generally the same in the US military, where 16 to 18% of troops are women, according to the Council on Foreign Relations.