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Articles related to "particle"

Researchers create active material out of microscopic spinning particles

  • These so-called active materials contain small magnetic particles that self-organize into short chains of particles, or spinners, and form a lattice-like structure when a magnetic field is applied.
  • "Active materials need an external energy source to maintain their structure," said Argonne materials scientist Alexey Snezhko, an author of the study.
  • Unlike in previous experiments involving active materials, which looked at particles that demonstrated linear motion, these new spinners acquire a handedness—like right- or left-handedness—that causes them to rotate in a specific direction.
  • The Argonne researchers wanted to know how a non-spinner particle would be transported through the active lattice.
  • If the particles in the lattice come closer together, the non-spinner particle can become trapped in an individual cell of the lattice.
  • By looking at systems with purely rotational motion, Snezhko and his colleagues believe that they can design systems with specific transport characteristics.

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What Do the Quark Oddities at the Large Hadron Collider Mean?

  • In their latest analysis, first presented at a seminar in March, the LHCb physicists found that several measurements involving the decay of B mesons conflict slightly with the predictions of the standard model of particle physics—the reigning set of equations describing the subatomic world.
  • Still, the observed pattern hints that something is off with B meson decay products in the lepton family, the other category of matter particles aside from quarks.
  • Like quarks, leptons come in heavy, medium, and light generations (called tau particles, muons, and electrons, respectively); the standard model says they’re all identical except for their mass.
  • The standard model demands that both types of decays should play out in exactly the same way, but a 2014 analysis by the LHCb team uncovered a possible difference between the muon events and the electron events.

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How cosmic rays may have sparked life on Earth — and what this could mean for life on other planets

  • Cosmic rays pouring down from space constantly bombarded those molecules as they replicated, and developed over time.
  • When chemicals take on similar mirror shapes, they are known as chiral molecules.
  • This new study suggests the biased way nature handles chemicals for life may be the result of cosmic rays coming from space long ago.
  • Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation, created by energetic processes around the Cosmos, bombarding Earth from all directions at enormous speeds.
  • Researchers believe these polarized muons, able to penetrate nearly any barrier, combined with the similarly-polarized electrons, may have worked to together, influencing chiral reactions as life first began to form on Earth.
  • Over time, the constant bombardment by polarized muons and electrons would have preferentially affected each type of molecule, altering mutation rates between left- and right-handed protobiological molecules.

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